Archive for April, 2010


CD duplication C1, C2 and CU disc errors

Thursday, April 29th, 2010

Following on from our recent post on CD duplication errors this article looks at the different kinds of disc errors. There are 3 main types of disc error associated with CD audio. These are C1, C2 and CU errors, below is a description and explanation of each error type.

C1 errors are the lowest level bit errors and are usually measured as errors per second. This block error rate or (BLER) is an indication of the quality of the master disc. All masters contain some degree of C1 errors and an average is somewhere between 50 and 200 errors per second. In general the lower the BLER or C1 error rate the better the master is. Although the Philips red book specification allows for up to 220 errors per second most replication plants like to see error rates of below 50 per second.

C2 errors can be caused by poor master CD burning, poor mastering media and also scratches and scuffs to the disc. C2 errors are read errors and not always a physical defect of the disc. One CD player may read more C2 errors than another CD player attempting to read the same disc. Most C2 errors are correctable by the CD player’s error correction, basically this error correction method makes a guess at what values the missing data should be. A certain degree of C2 errors may be acceptable on a master without any audible artefacts, however many replication plants much prefer masters with C2 errors rates of zero.

CU errors are errors that cannot usually be corrected, these uncorrectable errors render a master disc useless and all replication plants will reject a disc that contains CU errors.
The most common uncorrectable error is reffered to as an E32 error and in essence can be thought of as a string of 3 or more C2 errors that cannot be corrected by the CD drives error correction system. Pressing plants mastering software systems such as Eclipse will automatically fail any disc that contains E32 errors.

CD duplication master errors

Friday, April 16th, 2010

For most CD duplication orders we are able to use the direct master supplied by the customer. As long as the customer has prepared the master correctly our CD duplication machines will accept the master and make identical copies of the master provided.

However we often receive CD masters that are not suitable for CD duplication.

Common CD duplication master errors include:

• Master has been burnt in .wav or .mp3 format and not as an audio master
• Master has been burnt onto cheap unbranded CD media
• Master has been burnt to a re-writable CDRW
• Underside of master CD is scuffed and scratched
• Master has been provided on a DVD-R or DVD-RW
• Master has been burnt at too high of a speed
• Master has been burnt as multisession
• Session has not been closed or CD finalised
• Software has not written to correct Philips “book” specification

We can often detect most errors on a supplied CD master and request a replacement master from the customer. Alternatively we can rip the audio from the master and prepare a new production master to red book specification.

Occasionally a customer can supply a master which they have checked by listening and all sounds fine. Even though a master sounds as if it plays back without audible errors there can still be errors on the master. Most CD players use error correction to correct these small disc errors however these small disc errors can in effect be magnified by the duplication process to a degree where error correction is not effective and audible artefacts are present on the duplicated copies.

In our next article we look at the various types of CD disc errors in more detail and explain how to reduce the risk of these errors.

CD duplication for bands.

Friday, April 2nd, 2010

If you are a band looking to release your own album or perhaps some CD promotional copies then our CD duplication packages could be just what you are looking for. For promos or short runs of albums we offer CD duplication and for albums or EPs our replication packages start from 500 units.

For promotional purposes one of our most popular packages is a simple CD in plastic wallet. To keep costs down whilst ensure maximum audio playback compatibility and reliability most bands opt for CD duplication with black thermal text print on our Sony silver discs. Our Sony CDs have a silver record side which gives them the appearance of a factory pressed disc and the topside has a protective surface to prevent damage from scratching and harmful UV sunlight exposure. If you are looking for full colour presentation then CD duplication in clear plastic wallet is great option. Again for this service we use very high quality Sony discs with a special surface allowing for full colour gloss print.

When a full album product is required but there is still a budget to work to we can offer CD duplication packages from 100 to 400 units. With these album packages we can provide exactly the same high quality offset litho full colour booklet and inlays that we use on our replication orders. For orders of 400 and above it is then worth considering our full replication packages that use factory pressed glass mastered CDs.

For EPs a popular product is CD replication in full colour card wallet. We can now provide cellophane overwrap with our card wallet deals to provide a retail suitable fully manufactured CD release. Our replicated CD in wallet deals start from just £429 for 500 copies.

Easter CD duplication opening hours.

Thursday, April 1st, 2010

Here are the Easter CD duplication opening hours for Testa-Rossa. Our sales office will close at 5pm on Thursday April 1st and will remain closed for the holidays until Monday April 12th. Any short run CD duplication orders that have been approved and paid for will still continue through production and be delivered by Wednesday 7th April.

Our CD replication production will continue as normal between Tuesday 6th and Friday 9th of April. Any new orders received during these dates will not be processed until Monday April 12th but orders already placed, approved and paid for before Thursday April 1st will continue through our pressing plant as normal. Replication orders placed prior to Thursday April 12th will be scheduled for delivery on Tuesday 20th of April. Due to high workloads our replication leadtimes are approximately 11 working days.

All our CD duplication, DVD duplication, CD replication and DVD replication leadtimes should return to normal as from April 19th. As a guide short run duplication with no packaging will be back to 2 working days and replication with no packaging back to 7 working days. All orders that involve litho printed paper parts should return to 9 -10 working day leadtime.

During the Easter holidays we will still endeavour to reply to CD and DVD sales enquiries and quote requests albeit on a limited service. We would like to take this chance to wish all our customers a happy Easter break.

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